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Conflict and Negotiation: Teams and Groups- Report Writing Assignment Solution

June 20, 2017
Author : Kristy

Solution Code: 1JJHD

Question: Conflict and Negotiation Report

This assignment is related to ”Conflict and Negotiation Report” and experts atMy Assignment Services AUsuccessfully delivered HD quality work within the given deadline.

Conflict and Negotiation Report Writing Assignment

Purpose

The aim of this assignment is to allow participants to explore and develop key capabilities in one of the two key managing others capabilities addressed in the course. Students are to choose either:

  1. Conflict and Negotiation, or
  2. Empathy and Trust, or
  3. Teams and Groups.

During the Saturday workshops, diagnostic tools and mini-simulation activities will be undertaken for each topic that serve as the experiential basis for individual reflection about current practice. These are compulsory activities for students enrolled in the on campus delivery mode. Students who do not attend and participate in these activities will be deemed not to have completed this component of the assessment task and will receive a penalty. Online students are provided with alternative experiential activities. Students are then to prepare a literature review about the chosen topic that defines the key terms and outlines key theories or models and application (1000 words Approx). Students must utilise at least three (3) of the diagnostic tools undertaken during the workshops (such as the Johari Window, Thomas Khilman Conflict Questionnaire, The Big 5, ESCI, Belbin Team Inventory etc.) that provide insights into current capabilities or preferences. Students are to contrast the results of the diagnostics tests and compare these to the literature so as to identify key strengths and weakness in their managing others capabilities (500 words Approx). Students are then to identify two areas for improvement. Using your learnings from the literature review and diagnostic tools, develop a realistic plan of activities designed to improve your knowledge and skills over a 6 month period(500 words Approx).Research Requirements: A minimum of 12 scholarly references are to be used that includes at least4 peer reviewed journal articles included as citations within the report. Keep in mind that the external sources (outside the textbooks) must bepeer reviewed journal articles or scholarly book chapters. If you are in doubt of what constitutesa journal articleor scholarly book chapter you need to ask your lecturer/professor or tutor.

Assessment Criteria

  1. ability to construct a detailed and cohesive literature review that defines key concepts and terms related to the selected competency/capability
  2. as part of the literature review to summarise and contrast key concepts/models related to the selected competency/capability
  3. provide the results of 3 diagnostic tools that relate to the selected competency and to analyse these against the literature to identify personal strengths and weaknesses
  4. ability to devise a personal (management) development plan, supported by literature, that addresses these key capability needs
  5. demonstrate a breadth and quality of research by using a minimum of 12 academic sources from recommended texts and Journal articles use of the Harvard in text referencing system to correctly cite academic sources

These assignments are solved by our professional Conflict and negotiation reportwriting experts at My Assignment Services AU and the solution are high quality of work as well as 100% plagiarism free. The assignment solution was delivered within 2-3 Days.

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Solution:

Conflict and Negotiation

A large number of organisations are now embracing team approach to improve their team performance and thus to rise up to the demands and challenges they are facing in the 21 st century (Plessis, 2012, p.49). Being a team player thus adds on as a competency to an employee. This report is divided into three parts. The first part is a

literature review on what constitutes group and team, its major principles and models of application for increasing teamwork and performance of the organisation. The second part of the report has test results of my personality tests, their findings, analysis and the third part has recommendations.

Definition: Group and Team

In psychological terms group is “any number of people who (1) interact with one another; (2) are psychologically aware of one another; and (3) perceive themselves to be a group” (Mullins 2006, p.262). “A group exists when two or more people define themselves as members of it and when its existence is recognized by at least one other” (Brown 2000, cited in Kitchin, 2010, p.2). A team is “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” (Katchen & Smith 1993, cited in Michan & Rodger 2000, p.201) There are many benefits when organisations invest in teams. They are increase in productivity at the workplace, reduced management structure, low absenteeism impact, controlled employee turnover, harmony with the industry and improve workplace performance (Glassop 2002, p.225).

Major Theories

According to Bass and Ryterband, a group goes through four distinct stages for its development. They are mutual acceptance and membership, communication and decision-making, motivation and productivity and control and organisation (Mullins 2006, p.275).

According to five-stage group development model, the groups go through different stages of forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The group is developed in the forming stage and is characterised by uncertainty. In the storming stage there is intragroup conflict, in norming stage close relationships and cohesiveness is developed, the group becomes functional in the performing stage and in the adjourning stage there the group is wrapped up (Robbins & Judge 2013, p.309). According to Jewell and Reits, the phases that the group go through include orientation, conflict and challenge, cohesion, delusion, disillusion and acceptance (Kreitner 2009, p.375).

In the punctuated equilibrium model, the group has its own sequencing action and do not follow Tuckmans theory. They stages are setting the direction of the group and there is inertia in this stage. There will be a transition half way through the allotted time and it initiate major changes, this second phase of inertia is followed by transition and the last meeting has accelerated activities (Robbins & Judge 2013, p.310).

The Balance Theory proposed by Theodore Newcomb states that people are attracted to each other when they have similar attitudes and common goals or interest with respect to a subject. As long as there is this balance, the relationship prevails (Kondalker 2007, p.149).

The exchange theory invests on a cost-reward relationship where individuals join a group in anticipation of an expected outcome. The group should be able to display minimum positive outcome for the individual to be attracted to the group and to ensure that the members needs are fulfilled (Kondalker 2007, p.149).

According to the model of team effectiveness, people-related factors, organisation-related factors and task-related factors combine together to enhance effective performance of the team. A team like that comes forward with innovative ideas, meet the goals set, are high on team commitment and is valued by the upper management. Work satisfaction, trust and team spirit, lack of conflict and power struggle, good communication and low threat and high job security are the people related factors. Organisation related factors include its stability, management support, adequate reward and recognition programs, and stable growth through achievable goals and priorities. The task related factors includes clarity of task allotted including it objectives, directions and plans, adequate mentoring through providing directions and leadership, challenging work and autonomy of decisions, qualified team personals, project visibility and team involvement (Kreitner 2009, p. 386).

Eight core dimensions can be generalised across most of the teams that will perform according to Cannon-Bowers and are referred to as integrated teamwork skill dimensions. They are “adaptability, shared situational awareness, performance monitoring and feedback, leadership/team management, interpersonal relations, and coordination, communication and decision making (Sales, Burke & Cannon-Bowers, 2000, p.342).

Qualities for the enhancement or detraction of group

The groups will have certain qualities that will enhance or detract the attractiveness of the group. It is important to have factors that will enhance the performance and minimise factors that detract. Factors that enhance includes cooperative relationship, prestige and status, higher degree of interaction between the group members, smaller size of the group, common wavelength of the members in the group, an impressive public image, and a common threat faced by the group. Some of the factors that should be detracted from include unreasonable or disagreeable demands from members of the group, disagreement over procedures, activities and rules, unpleasant experience in group, conflicting requirements that impacts preferences of the group members, unfavourable public image and competition (Kreitner 2009, p.371).

A high importance is attached to the behaviour and performance of the group members as for individual performance. When members are working in a team, there is an inherent need to emphasis on virtues of co-operation and use each employee’s strength. A team can become more successful by increasing productivity, increasing and encouraging quality and innovation, through maximum utilisation of technological advancements, increased commitment and motivation (Mullins 2006, p.265). An organisation is benefitted from group cohesiveness and performance (Mullin 2006, p.266). Organisational factors like management and leadership, policies and procedure set by the management, success, threat and work environment related factors like the nature of the task, physical setting, communications and technology has an impact on the performance of the group (Mullins 2006, p.267)

Group dynamics play an important role in the performance of the group. A group has its on norms that are a set of beliefs, attitude and feelings that are commonly shared by the members. It could be on the basis of performance, appearance or behaviour. These norms develop over a time period and later become identical with the members in the group. Trust, is the key to effectiveness of the team as it helps in establishing interpersonal relationships. Trust is a belief in the character, integrity and ability of other members in the team. Trust can be enhanced through proper communication, support, respect, fairness, predictability and competence (Kreitner 2009, p.387).

Results and Findings

The following is my personal result for Johari window. The number of participants is five.

Johari Window

Johari Window Result

The dominant traits that were achieved through this test were that I am 60% dependable, 60% knowledgeable and 60% trustworthy. The qualities I know I had included bold, caring, dependable, intelligent and observant. It is a façade that I am an introvert. The blind spot e the qualities I am yet to realise I have, and they included able, clever, complex, extroverted, friendly, helpful, knowledgeable, logical, loving, sensible, shy, trustworthy and warm.

The Big Five Personality Test

The Big Five Personality Test

Big Personality Test

My score is comparatively high in openness to experience, which means I tend to be original, creative, curious and complex. I am at 58 percentile on conscientiousness, which means I tend to reliable, well organised, self-disciplined, and careful. I have scored 18 percentile on extraversion which means I tend to be introverted, reserved, inhibited and quite. I am 50% agreeable which mean I am at a balance between good natured, sympathetic, forgiving, courteous, critical, ruse, harsh and callous. I have scored 55 percentile on neuroticism which mean I tend to be nervous, high-strung, insecure and worrying.

The following are the results of the Team role test

The Team Role Test

The Team Role Test

My percentages for nine team roles are executive (2%), explorer (6%), innovator (14%), analyst (6%), driver (11%), chairman (11%), completer (14%), team player (14%) and expert (22%).

Analysis

While comparing the results of three tests undertaken, there is a high level of similarity between the test results. The major qualities that are established includes trustworthiness, dependability and knowledgeable in Johari window. Big 5 reassert my being reliable, organised and disciplined, creative and complex. In a team I tend to be an expert in comparison to the other eight roles, which reflects the scores of the other two tests. The major flaw I could find in my self is in façade zone that is introverted (Johari window). I believe I am introverted and it was reflected in the test results. I am also very poor when it comes to the roles played in a tem as an executive, explorer and analyst that requires spontaneity and communication skills.

The topic that is chosen here is groups and team that are now an integral part of any organisation. Irrespective of the intention to start a business, or to be a successful employee who can reach to the middle management through constant promotions, one should be a good communicator and outgoing in nature. Along with this I should work on what I am good at, which is trustworthiness, dependability and attaining knowledge.

Recommendations

The two major elements that I choose to work on to improve myself are communication and leadership by overcoming my insecurities. These qualities in combination of my other qualities will boost my performance in any arena.

Communication

There is no doubt in the fact that communication is a vital human action that is required across all the organisations alike. Apart from the communication that is required for doing work there are different kinds of communication that is possible by a manager including listening, reflecting, feedback, friendly conversation, budget discussion and many more (Budd & Velaquez 2013, p.395). To avoid conflict in any of these different types of communication, there should be an openness and transparency behind the communicators and the practices undertaken. Conflict resolution plays an important role in enhancing the performance of the team (Budd & Velaquez, 2014, p.395). The importance of effective communication is very high when it comes to generation of trust. Effective communication has the power to influence and change also established perceptions (Tucker, Yeow & Viki 2013, p.184).

Effective communication acts as an easy to way to establish interpersonal relationship. Contact play an important role as they will act as vital resources in time of need. Though I believe I am inherently am introvert, I need to move away from my hobbies and find time to communicate with other, so that people will know me for the qualities and talents that I have.

Leadership

Though leadership is a single world, multiple qualities across different fields make a leader. An effective leader will have skills for budgeting, conflict resolution, delegation, communication, group dynamics, team building, motivation, stress management, planning, supervision and many more (Wilson, Lenssen & Hind, 2006). Leader qualities should be present in the personal attitude and beliefs. A good leader will have the combination of leadership qualities, management skills and reflexive abilities including embracing of diversity and managing risk (Wilson, Lenssen & Hind, 2006).

Pursuing leadership and its qualities requires immense effort from my side, as I need to work on my insecurities and stress management. Along with communication, I need to focus in taking up responsibilities that I shrink from and expose myself to uncertainty, and learn to handle spontaneous tasks with out much preplanning. This will only be possible with a thorough strategy formation and assistance from mentors and friends, who will help me to develop into an effective team worker.

To conclude, this exercise has added to my knowledge on the importance of being a team leader and helped me to reflect on my major strengths and weakness. As it is already known, the only way to become a better team player is through working on the selected skills and asking for feedback from people who knows me and can and provide me with a valid/truthful feedback.

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