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MPM722: Human Resource Management- Employee Engagement- Research Paper

June 22, 2017
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Question: Employee Engagement- Research Paper

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Employee Engagement- Research Paper


There is perplexity and confusion as to what precisely employee engagement may be. The International Survey Research (ISR) characterizes worker engagement as, "a procedure by which an association builds duty and continuation of its representatives to the accomplishment of prevalent results." The ISR isolates duty into three sections; psychological responsibility, emotional responsibility, and behavioural responsibility or think, feel and act.

The essential drivers of this disarray and confusion are an absence of congruity concerning the definition and estimation of employee engagement and an absence of qualification from other firmly related ideas. This article tells that these issues in more unmistakable purpose of hobby and likewise offers direction to human resource managers. There is little instability that agent engagement can be strengthened by tolerability and its related segments, practically as specialist engagement can be crippled by disgracefulness et cetera. As both the workforce and the workplace advance, affiliations may find that with a particular finished objective to win the "war for capacity," they ought to first win the battle for agents' souls. Value, trust, perception and risks are only two or three bits of a more noticeable conundrum; additionally, their parts are can be made clearer. This

paper lights up these parts and addresses the associations in the middle of sensibility and engagement and additionally examines the effects of saw uncalled for treatment on engagement.

Associations over the world essential centre are objective introduction and benefit boost or profit maximization; their workers are needed to put in their absolute best endeavours in operational and value-based exercises to complete these. With a specific end goal to accomplish ideal execution and esteem from employees, associations need to guarantee that they are always motivated, satisfactorily fulfilled, committed, and drew in to their employment depictions and scope. Human resource rehearse assumes the real part in deciding these elements in employees and how they are remunerated as needs be. Methods and approaches are planned, set up, executed in an efficient procedure to urge them to contribute better, keep up and hold a high level of value, and pull in human capital so as to get back sensible and positive returns for the association. The main objective is to repay employees sensibly, decently, and dependably as indicated by their value in the association.

This article contains a venture situation, the researchers are intrigued by this exploration and inquisitive about the result in view of the issues brought so far up in the past section. Taking into account this and in the midst of different reasons, the point and goals of this examination is along these lines separated underneath to nearly analyse the idea of employee engagement. To try to separate employee engagement from other comparative develops to inspect the perspective purpose of faultfinders and promoters of the idea to research explanations behind low engagement particularly in fast food organizations and how they have been adapting to this test to make vital suggestions for the association under this present study taking signals from comparable associations who have enhanced levels of engagement in their associations to make very much educated commitment to the collection of the scholarly world and viable significance to experts too.

Literature review:-

Research done in the past decade bolsters the standards of employee engagement frameworks together with the viability of particular practices for instance this approach to the management design will focus on decision making authority. High association administration rehearses have resulted into attraction among researchers in a wide range of geologies. Summing up, we get to know the necessity of employee engagement in terms of efficiency and representative prosperity. The essential standards of employee engagement was first tried in 1960s and 1970s with critical investigation in Europe and United states in huge assembling plants. A standout amongst the most unmistakable was in a Volvo plant in Sweden that utilized semi-self-governing groups to collect autos. Be that as it may, Employee engagement did not increase wide acknowledgment by industry until the 1980s (Boxall and Macky, 2009; Cappelli and Neumark, 2001). This was the start of the quality development in assembling what's more, new high-inclusion start-up or "greenfield" producing plants. Wide appropriation of such high-contribution rehearses as work groups, level association structures, broadly educating, aptitude based pay, and helpful union.

By the mid of 1990s there was critical development in high-association work practices (additionally named participative, adaptable, or elite practices) in the United States and Europe. Around then there was likewise huge hobby in the prominent business press, and scholastic exploration showed their adequacy through contextual investigations and bigger overviews of hierarchical execution (Adler, Goldoftas, and Levine, 1997). Expanding rivalry and the change of assembling commercial ventures seem to have driven the far reaching selection of employee engagement (Locke, Kochan, and Piore, 1995). By 2000, contemplates demonstrated that some type of employee engagement practices were in place in an extensive extent of work environments in industrialized nations, including half of all U.S. firms and 66% of the Fortune 1000 (Cooke, 1994; Freeman, Kleiner, and Ostroff, 2000)

It is hazy whether this pattern speaks to organizations pulling once more from the utilization of employee engagement practices or that the acknowledgment of these practices has turned out to be widespread to the point that employee engagement has come to an immersion point, with couple of associations and commercial enterprises left as great possibility to change.

Such a great amount of examination on high-association and elite work rehearses has amassed in the course of recent years that the essential establishments of employee engagement are presently to a great extent unchallenged. To some degree they have essentially gotten to be the way work is sorted out and are no more seen as transformative practices. To some degree they have simply become the way work is organized and are no longer seen as transformative practices.

Enhancing employee engagement can expand efficiency and productivity while additionally decreasing representative non-appearance and turnover.

The Gallup Management Group (reported in Dernovsek, 2008) demonstrated that enhancing employee engagement is critical in light of the fact that connected with employees have:

  • 51% lower turnover
  • 27% less non-appearance
  • 18% more profitability
  • 12% higher gainfulness

Expanding Employee Engagement "Would could it be that your association is doing to guarantee that individuals don't feel like numbers?" When asked in the Strategic HR Review for what good reason supervisors were changing from employee fulfilment to engagement, Ray Baumruk, Hewitt Associates, reacted: 'employee fulfilment was truly a measure of "how individuals like it here & rather than measuring practices that will offer associations some assistance with becoming more fruitful for workers, shareholders and clients.

Current execution of high-association practices is more troublesome to gauge. In the course of recent years there have been no new eminent extensive scale reviews of employee engagement work rehearses in the United States. The Workplace Livelihood Relations Survey (WERS) in the United Kingdom was last led in 2011. An examination of the reception of different contribution hones with 2004 reviews shows that employee engagement has stayed stable or diminished somewhat (Van Wanrooy et al., 2013). In the United States the last accessible reviews show that the

rates of reception of employee engagement have levelled off or started to decay marginally (O'Toole et al., 2007).

Best practices, issues and problem:-

Employers and employees don't comprehend engagement. The objectives and measurements of engagement projects are regularly restricted. Engagement is not profitability or a yield, outside elements might impact engagement. Assorted employees and distinctive generations’ people are locked in by diverse things troubling in comprehension fluctuating personality of adolescents. Thinking little of the importance of employee engagement in the organisational achievement is absence of co-operation and co-appointment from administration.

How to measure Employee Engagement Is a major issue. Generally, representative engagement is measured through a yearly employee engagement overview that goes out to the whole company. The engagement review addresses by and large request that employees rate their concurrence with articulations, for example, will I suggest my family or friend to join this company or not, my talents are all around used and at correct place, I have confidence in the mission of the association, my work is perceived and valued, I have a feeling of my profession way or not and etc. Number of organisations will likewise run little, more successive "heartbeat" studies. Rather than thorough employee engagement studies, beat overviews are generally smaller in degree, e.g. given to a littler number of representatives or questions concentrated on less subjects. They permit chiefs to get a fast preview of specific zones of the organization to check whether their efforts to enhance engagement are working.

The substance of employee engagement studies is very not the same as a consistent employee study as engagement measures significantly more than just bliss or fulfilment. Yet, the greatest distinction comes in reporting.

Reporting for employee engagement is advanced, essentially on the grounds that managers need to recognize engagement issues or triumphs to pinpoint where they are in the association. They require complex various levelled reporting and individualized, intuitive dashboards.

Progressive reporting lets managers drill down into the information – for instance, contrasting divisions, groups and teams. They can rapidly see pockets of high or low engagement that permit them to find whether something is pervasive or restricted to a particular gathering. Various levelled reporting likewise tells managers precisely which levers they have to draw to settle issues and make a more grounded, more engaged in workforce.

These process vary multi-national organisation from country to country, communication plays a vital role in making people in the organisation of a clear vision that the company needs to be successful in the market and most importantly organisation in different countries do not have people with the same culture so it becomes really challenging for the managers from the head office to control employee engagement. For instance, the strategy for employee engagement in one country cannot be directly copied to another country, it has to be moulded according to people fields of interest and their culture. Moreover, the organisation should be careful that they do not hurt the cultural value of the employees.

Multinational organizations have been effectively utilizing the "adopt and adjust" way to deal with worldwide employee engagement to spread their projects over various locations. All the while, they have figured out how to minimize or beat various difficulties that have undermined to make going worldwide cost-restrictive. Discovering extraordinary neighbourhood managers and supporters is basically critical to the accomplishment of worldwide engagement. Whether the arrangement is an official champion or a volunteer committee, the local employees know best what group issues are the most squeezing and how representatives will respond to being requested that offer assistance. Some of the time that implies deciphering key reports to guarantee appreciation, especially when talking with NGOs. It is another approach to "adopt and adjust" for achievement. While 10 years back organizations might have been thinking about whether the push to go worldwide would be advantageous, today's organizations say unequivocally yes.

Discussion and analysis:-

Employee engagement is high on the motivation for some associations whether they are situated in Asia, Europe or United States. The vast majority of the associations are in the blink of an eye characterizing what employee engagement is and are directing reviews to quantify the dedication of their workers to reliably act to the greatest advantage of the association.

The level of employee engagement is turning out to be progressively vital for associations to stay gainful and focused. The literature offers a few ways for activity which are summarised as following solutions.

  • Managers ought to endeavour to keep up a company’s notoriety and show high moral guidelines. Employees need to be glad for their occupations, their execution, and their association. West Jet Airlines is among the most appreciated associations in Canada. The organization has accomplished various recompenses. For instance, in 2005, it earned the most obvious spot for best corporate society in Canada. On September 26, 2005, West Jet propelled the "On the grounds that we’re Owners!" battle. Why do West Jet representatives think such a great amount about their association? Why do more than 85 percent of them own shares in the organization? Employees trust so unequivocally in what West Jet is attempting to do and are so amped up for its solid execution record that they submit their own cash into shares.
  • Managers must show that they consider employees very important for the organisation. Job centre duties,
  • Individuals need to communicate the vision that senior administration has for the association, and the objectives that managers or departmental heads have for the division, unit, or group. Accomplishment in life and associations is, all things considered, dictated by how clear people are about their objectives and what they truly need to accomplish. In entirety, representatives need to comprehend what the association's objectives are, the

    reason they are vital, and how the objectives can best be achieved. Clarity about what the association remains for, what it needs to accomplish, and how individuals can add to the association's prosperity is not generally obvious. For instance, the most injuring issue in American business is sheer lack of awareness about how business functions.

  • Managers illuminate their assumptions about employees and give criticism on their working in the association. Great managers set up procedures and methods that individuals expert critical undertakings and encourage objective accomplishment. Managers can take in an incredible arrangement from Wooden's methodology. These same representatives additionally report that acclaim and acknowledgment for solid execution is a great deal less


  • For achieving professional success in market, managers must spent time on testing the work done and reviewing the results achieved. For instance, do associations give work revolution to their top ability? Are individual’s allotted stretch objectives? Do managers consider individuals responsible for advancement? Are occupations advanced in obligations and obligations? Great managers challenge representatives; however in the meantime, they should impart the certainty that the difficulties can be met. It is likewise prone to stress, dissatisfaction, and, eventually, absence of engagement.
  • Employees need to realize that their data matters and that they are adding to the association's accomplishment meaningfully. This may be anything but difficult to express in settings, for example, healing centres and instructive institutions. But this is exceptionally hard to execute in retail industry.
  • Workers esteem control over the stream and pace of their occupations and pioneers can make open doors for representatives to practice this control. The success of Microsoft, for instance, stems to some extent from Bill Gates' conviction that savvy individuals anyplace in the organization ought to have the ability to drive an activity.
  • Survey shows that, when the representatives work in groups and have the trust and participation of their colleagues, they defeat people and groups which need great connections. Incredible pioneers are group manufacturers; they make a domain that encourages trust and cooperation. Overviews show that being thought about by partners is a solid indicator of representative engagement. Along these lines, a consistent test for manager is to rally people to work together on hierarchical, departmental, and bunch objectives, while barring people seeking after their self-hobby or interest.
  • Good managers make trust in an organization by being models of high moral and execution guidelines. To outline, consider what happened to Harry Stonecipher, the previous CEO of Boeing. He made the reclamation of corporate morals in the association a top need yet was not long after humiliated by the revelation of an extramarital undertaking with a female worker. His misguided thinking debilitated his capacity to lead and he lost a key element for achievement – believability. Along these lines the board requesting that he leave. At WorldCom, most workers were stunned, shocked, and humiliated when the bookkeeping outrage broke at the organization. New initiative was confronted with the significant difficulties of recapturing open trust and encouraging representative engagement.

    Representative engagement is difficult to accomplish and if not supported by managers it can shrink effortlessly.

  • Conclusion:-

    This article makes it vivid that employee engagement is an idea with various definitions, apparently no type of direct measure, and confounding hybrid with other longer standing ideas. Engagement influences both smaller scale and large scale levels of your association from a wide range of bearings. With a specific end goal to diminish the general equivocalness around representative engagement further research must be done to clear up what worker engagement is and what makes it one of a kind. Any organization wanting to accomplish controllable results utilizing representative engagement, as it is at present comprehended, is encouraged to continue with alert utilizing conscious steps and the desire of making a custom methodology in light of broad examination of organization qualities and shortcomings, related ideas, and the "questions" of worker engagement. Employee engagement falls into two essential methodologies: The philosophical methodology where engagement is all the more an "administration theory" to consider while settling on general HR choices, and the sober minded methodology where an organization has a "devoted system" for engagement where they attempt to verbalize and measure engagement. Be that as it may, neither one of the processes is expressed to give a reasonable victor in accomplishing a "drew in" workforce. In conclusion consequently, the issue of worker engagement truly appears to grapple on modern and representative relations. Keeping in mind the end goal to effectively draw in workers, representative relations should be very much adjusted to the authoritative procedures of the organization. On top of that, the entire thought of driving engagement in the working environment is by all accounts about the craving to make an execution society inside of association. For this to work, the way of life must be fell from the extremely top to the base, from the back office to the cutting edge (Fairhurst 2008)

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Solution: Employee Engagement- Research Paper

Human Resource Management


The processes involved in recruitment of relevant employees in an organization are quit tedious and once a qualified employee is found, it is the desire of every organization that such employee would always remain committed and productive to the organization (Luthans &Peterson 2002). However, sometimes very competitive and highly qualified employees tend to be less concern with the goals of the organization. The level of concentration and commitment of such employee may decrease greatly to an extent that their productivity in work place or to the tasks they are assigned to can no longer be quantifiable .This would result into organization running into heavy losses because employees’ commitments to an organization have direct impacts on the overall performance of the organization (May, Gilson & Harter 2004).

Nevertheless, there are several efforts that an organization may utilize to effectively ensure that employees continue being productive and at the same time remain fully engaged to the organization requirement. These efforts include but not limited to appropriate organizational culture and practices, organizational frames, employees motivation, effective conflicts resolutions and negotiation strategies, realistic policies and rules, and finally enhancing professional development in employees (Luthans &Peterson 2002).

Efforts organization can take to Increase commitment and engagement of their key employees

Appropriate culture and practices in the organization

Organizational culture is very important in ensuring that their key employee remain committed to the organization. The beliefs and system within an organization would determine if key employees would remain loyal to the organization or not (Schein 2010). If for instance, an organization has culture which resonates well with the needs of the employees, then it would be easier to identify them with that organization. Appropriate values such respect of employees by the senior management, advocating for excellence, openness, integrity and transparency within the organization, are some of the appropriate values which when adopted in the organization, then most likely employees would remain committed to the organization .However, if an organization encourages mediocre services then employee who are highly skilled and productive would not dedicate their time and energy to the organization (Schein 2010).

Similarly, an organization must assure it employee of job security (May, Gilson &Harter 2004). Ideally organization which have culture of firing and hiring of new employees each and every time are most likely bound to lose their key employees. Majority of employees only remain committed to an organization which assures them of their job security. This is due to the fact that employees often do not prefer changing work station quite often because this would disorient them on their individual plan which they may intend to implement (May, Gilson

&Harter 2004).

Organizational Frames

An organizational frame refers to lenses upon which the organization views its employees. Typically, there are four different types of lenses which include structural frame, human resource frame, political frame as well as symbolic frame (Becker & Meise 2011).These frames are very important because in one way or the other, they can promote level of commitment of employees or completely demoralize employees in an organization thus their productivity can decrease in the organization. Structural frame, for instance focuses excessively on the goals and needs of the organization rather than the individual needs of the employees. It advocates for division of labor and specialization within the organization, which would ultimately enhance productivity in the organization (Becker & Meise 2011). However, it creates several bureaucracies which occasionally may affect employees who have compelling issues which need urgent solution. But if an organization clearly defines roles to be performed by

employees, then most likely some employees would be comfortable with in a work environment where there are clearly defined roles (Schein 2010).

On the other hand, human resource frame views both employees and the organization as key partners whom need each other and cannot achieve their goals independently (Schein 2010). For instance, organization needs employees’ time, commitment, skills and energy so that it remains productive and achieves its overall goals (Becker & Meise 2011). Similarly, employees need organization because it provides then with job, salary, professional development, as well as social interaction. Therefore, from human resource frame perspective, both employees and organization are like one family which should strive to work collectively to meet the needs of each other (Schein 2010). It is therefore very significant for an organization to adopt proper organizational frames that would cater for the needs of all partners engaged in it. Again it is desirable for an organization to fulfill the needs of the employees’ adequateltly because this would certainly make employees remain highly committed to the organization hence productivity in the organization is likely to go up (Harter, Schmid &Hayes 2002).

Employees’ motivation

For employees to remain committed to an organization they have to be motivated. Motivated employees would dedicate fully their time and energy to the needs of the organization compared to employees who are not motivated (Maroudas, Kyriakidou &Vacharis 2008).There are several efforts which an organization can utilize to boost the morale of their employees. Proper remuneration of key employees would divert their attention from searching for

opportunities in other organization which may offer lucrative package (Harter, Schmid &Hayes 2002). It is evident that talented employees who play key roles in an organization would only remain committed to that organization if they are well remunerated .In every industry that an organization participates in, the competitors in the same industry would frequently hook employees whom they consider are very valuable and play key roles in the organization which they compete with. Such employees are very resourceful and are important asset to employer.

Therefore, to ensure that such employees stick to an organization, they should be remunerated properly (Maroudas, Kyriakidou &Vacharis 2008).

Other ways of motivating key employees in an organization is by clearly understanding the role of that of such employees in an organization. Essentially, there are different roles of employees especially when they are working as a team in an organization (Schein 2010).Team role in an organization may not necessarily depend on the personality of the employee but rather key skills and talents which such employee has. Typically, there are eight team roles as suggested in Belbin team inventory diagnostic tool (Luo 1999). These are chairman, plant, monitor-evaluator, company worker, resource investigator, team worker, and finally completer- finisher. The implication of this Belbin team inventory tool to an organization is that unless an organization clearly identifies the role of each employee in a team role, very talented, creative and skilled employees who are crucial to the organization would not engage themselves as required. So, an organization must utilize this diagnostic tool to identify the role of every employee more so if team role are highlighted in the organization. When an employee is assigned inappropriate team role, then chances are that such employee would not dedicate his or her effort to the organization and would always be looking out for opportunity elsewhere (Luo 1999).

Realistic Policies and Rules

Polices which provide general guidelines into actions in an organization are equally important in ensuring that key employees remain focused to the goals of the organization .Lack of appropriate policies and rules in an organization can contribute to employees diverting their attentions towards other non essential thing which do not add any value to the organization (May, Gilson &Harter 2004). Similarly, too many rules and policies may very appear very threatening to key employees in an organization. Management needs to be totally sensitive in terms of the policies and rules it formulates. At times it is necessary to bring key employees on board to offer their opinion regarding a particular policy or certain rule(Maroudas, Kyriakidou &Vacharis 2008).By blindly formulating policies and rules without proper evaluation of such policy or rule to the overall goal of the organization, sometimes can be very detrimental. To attract and retain key employees in an organization, realistic policies and rules must be instituted which would not only sustain productivity but also creates conducive environment for nurturing of employees ideas (Schein 2010).

Proper Mechanism for Conflict Resolution

Conflict in an organization is inevitable. However, the approach an organization takes would determine if the employees would still remain committed to the organization or not. Proper channels of communication to address employees’ conflicting opinions should be enhanced in the organization (Luo 1999).Key employees who oftentimes find their problems not amicably addressed, with time would develop negative attitude toward an organization. This would adversely affect their level of engagement in the organization which would in turn make them less productive and useful to the organization (Luo 1999).

How These Processes vary for multi-national organizations Operation in different Countries and cultures

Multi-national organizations which operate in different countries which have different cultures must identify varying needs of the employees in their countries of operations. Employees in developed country in which cost of the living is quite expensive would not be remunerated with the same scale as employees who are engaged in developing countries (Luthans &Peterson 2002). Therefore, multi-nationals organizations should consider cost of

living in order to motivate employees appropriately .Again policies formulated would also vary from country to country which at large is checked by the individual governments (Schein 2010). Similarly, the process of conflict resolution in an organization, especially when it operates in different cultural set up would also depend on the practices in a particular country. In some countries, employees have right to strike if their interests are not well addressed by the organization, in other places labor disputes offices are actively involved in resolving employees conflicts( Luthans &Peterson 2002).


Key employees who remains committed and engaged to the organization contribute significantly to the success of such organization (May, Gilson &Harter 2004). However; such employees require an environment which would enhance their professional development which would in turn provide them with opportunity to fulfill their goals. Similarly, personal needs of key employees must also be fully addressed if an organization wants to remain productive. Organizations with good human resource practices can hardly lose their key employees this is due to the fact that good policies and rules which are inclusive to both the needs of the organization and employees are likely to make employees commit their abilities for the success of an organization (May, Gilson &Harter 2004).

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