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Nursing - Endocrine System - Diabetes Mellitus - Report Writing Assessment Answer

March 02, 2018
Author : Ashley Simons

Solution Code: 1AFIA

Question:Nursing

This assignment falls under Nursing which was successfully solved by the assignment writing experts at My Assignment Services AU under assignment help service.

Nursing Assignment

Assignment Task

From the ten topics provided below, you are to write a report describing:

  • The normal physiological functioning/regulation of the listed body system;
  • How that system is affected physiologically during the development of a specific disease/disorder, with an emphasis on how homeostatic regulation is affected; and,
  • What possible treatment avenues are available to restore homeostasis or normal regulation?

All four articles must have been published in the past five years. You may still cite older articles in your report, however, your four key articles must be no older than five years.

Topic choices (choose justONEof the following topics) five systems ten topics select just one topic which you feel easy.

Nervous system (two topics)

  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Retinitis pigmentosa

Endocrine system (two topics)

  • Addison’s disease
  • Diabetes mellitus

Respiratory system (two topics)

  • Asthma
  • Pneumonia

Cardiovascular system (two topics)

  • Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Arrhythmia

Gastrointestinal system (two topics)

  • Crohn’s disease
  • Ulcerative colitis

  • Abstract (approximately 250 words or half a page):your first paragraph (abstract) outlines the major points of your assignment and normally covers:

  1. a) A general statement about the importance of your chosen research area (setting the context/big picture);
  2. b) A brief outline of the normal physiological role of your chosen system and how normal homeostatic regulation is disrupted in your chosen disease state;
  3. c) Outline the major treatment options you will be discussing and indicate how they restore homeostasis; and
  4. d) Add a synthesis statement (this summarizes what you have discovered regarding your topic – this is your position statement).

  • Conclusion (150 words or a quater of apage):Sum up the key aspects of your argument/findings in a concise fashion. No new information should be introduced in this section.
  • Reference list:presented in a consistent Harvard referencing style. This will have at least 4 references – your key articles, but it is strongly suggested that you have additional references to ensure you meet all the criteria in the marking scheme ( ).Note:The body of your assignment must follow the structure of your abstract. Make sure your abstract covers all major points raised in the body of your assignment and vice versa.Also,citationsdo notappear in an abstract as this is a general overview.
  • Body of the assignment :following the outline of your abstract, you lay out your logical presentation of the information. Here you will discuss in detail, with cited evidence, the normal functioning of your chosen system, how homeostasis is perturbed during the onset of your chosen disease and what are the treatment options for restoring homeostasis. Make sure you describe in detail how your discussed treatment options physiologically restore homeostasis. Don’t simply list a group of drugs and state that they restore homeostasis, describe how they produce their action. In this section you need to: demonstrate command of the literature by critical analysis of the research that has been reported (strengths and weaknesses); synthesise the information looking for themes (do not just cut and paste information from different sources – this is not synthesis); and present contrary views or explanations (if there are any). Also, while doing all this, your writing has to flow with one essential idea in each paragraph that links logically to the next.This is not an easy task and will take MANY drafts. Get others to read your work and obtain feedback.
  • Articles:Attach your4 key articles(ONLYyour four key articles).

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Solution

Endocrine System: Diabetes MellitusIntroduction

The Endocrine system represents a collection of glands such as adrenal glands, pituitary gland and thyroid glands which produce hormones to regulate the bodies metabolism, tissue functioning, sexual function and growth and development among other roles. The system also has a key role in sugar and mineral homeostasis in the body among other processes regulated by the hormones. According to Birnbaum (2013), "the anatomy of the endocrine system starts with the hypothalamus which is also a part of the brain that serves key roles in the nervous systems." It also contains special cells that release and inhibit hormones thus affecting the functioning or stimulating growth among other effects. The Endocrine system is however affected physiologically by different disorders that affects mainly the homeostatic regulation such as diabetes mellitus creating the need to establish better treatment approaches to restore homeostasis and normal regulation in the body.

Normal Physiological Functioning of the Endocrine System

According to Slama et al., (2016) he endocrine system has a key role of coordinating and integrating cellular activity within the body through regulation of the cellular and organ functioning in life as well as maintaining homeostasis. The Endocrine system impacts the physiological functioning in the body by releasing chemical messages and hormones within the bloodstream from the endocrine glands and exocrine. The endocrine system tends to control the internal environment of the body which helps in regulating its chemical composition and volume (Hectors et al.,2013). It also integrates different organs from the embryologic origins that release hormones that affects cell functioning as well as working with other body systems to promote healthy living such the immune and nervous systems (Slama et al., 2016).

According to Hectors et al., (2013) the endocrine system also helps in regulating energy balance and organic metabolism in the body by releasing a series of hormones into the blood stream through a balanced output promoting the body health that is highly dependent on the balance levels of the output from the glands. The system also contain the thyroid gland found within the side of the trachea and its secretion of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine which controls the general metabolism in the body as well as growth rate and proper mental development. Undersecretion of the hormone results to slow growth as well as proper mental development (Hectors et al.,2013). Another core physiological function of the endocrine system involves the maintenance of constant internal environment to promote appropriate cell functions a process defined as homeostasis. The endocrine system also has a key role of raising the blood calcium as well as phosphorous in the blood a process maintained by the parathyroid glands that secrete parathormone (Hectors et al.,2013).

The system also enhances the chances of regulating the sugar levels in the blood as well as the conversion of sugar to energy and heat which is done in the pancreas. In this case, the inefficiency of insulin results to disease such as diabetes mellitus which is also a common disease affecting a significant population with over a million people experiencing the diabetes problem (Birnbaum, 2013). Endocrine system promotes hormonal regulation by releasing inhibiting hormones or the action of hypothalamus. Additionally the endocrine combines with other body systems to regulate glucose in the bloodstream and the entire body thus affecting the organs performances as well as influencing powerful responses to external factors (Hectors et al., 2013).

How Endocrine System is Affected by Diabetes Mellitus

As much as the endocrine system helps in maintaining healthy bodies, some of the hormones released are targeted towards selected organs and tissues such as the liver and kidney. The interruption of communication within different organs that release hormones or neurotransmitters may influence adverse health problems (Hectors et al.,2013). Additionally, the hormonal levels may also indicate problems in the endocrine system such as infection or changes in the blood's fluids. One of the key endocrine disease that is common among large population includes Diabetes mellitus which involves lack of insulin in the body as well as poor processing of glucose making the body ineffective. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common disease affecting a large population in different parts of the world and characterized by too much sugar in the blood as well as the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Additionally it can also be influenced by the resistance of cells in the body to insulin (Slama et al., 2016).

Diabetes is a common problem in different countries such as Australia and the US as the diseases and more likely to affect different parts of the body. According to Hectors et al., (2013) when the blood glucose levels are high and the release of insulin is inhibited the endocrine system operation is affected decreasing the blood glucose levels and affecting the normal functioning of some parts of the body such as pancreas that releases the insulin. Diabetes exists in two forms such as type 1 and type 2; however, in both types the body experiences problems in transporting sugar from the blood to the cells increasing the level of glucose in the blood and less rates in the cells (Tijani, Fatoba & Petrik, 2013). However, the difference between the two types of diabetes is based on the underlying mechanisms that influence blood sugar problems. However, it's clear that they both have adverse effects since they limit the effectiveness of the endocrine system (Hectors et al., 2013).

Diabetes mellitus which makes the body have less supply if insulin destroys the immune system of the patient thus increasing the bodies vulnerability to different health problems. Some of the associated problems influenced by diabetes includes cardiovascular diseases, coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease influenced by the damaged vessels in the body. Diabetes also influences chronic inflammation. According to research by Tijani, Fatoba & Petrik (2013) the endocrine system handles the body functions such as metabolism, organs and cells as well as growth. However, diabetes tends to affect the system physiologically during the development stages of the diseases such as limiting the ability of the endocrine system to respond effectively to insulin sensitivity or inhibiting mechanisms to control the level of glucose in the blood (Birnbaum, 2013). In this regard, diabetes limits the ability of the endocrine system to keep the body's hormones and secretion levels in balance. It also causes some overworking of some organs involved in endocrine system making it hard to control the diabetes problem by maintaining healthy glucose levels. In majority of the patients with diabetes problem the adverse effects are profound primary due to the reduced immune system which makes the body vulnerable to other health problems (Tijani, Fatoba & Petrik, 2013).

Endocrine system also involves hormones and cells that provides checks and balances within the body enhancing the chances of promoting normal regulation or homeostasis. Diabetes tends to have a significant impact on homeostasis as it limits the body's ability to maintain the required internal environments. For example, the control on blood glucose levels falls under the homeostatic role where different hormones work together. However, the presence of diabetes suggests that the body is unable to experience homeostatic control as the blood glucose and insulin level are not constant (Tijani, Fatoba & Petrik, 2013).

Possible Treatment Options to Restore Homeostasis and normal Regulation

One of the key problems identified related to diabetes involves the bodies inability to maintain normal regulation to poor balance of the insulin and the blood glucose levels. In this regard, the possible treatment avenues should be based on addressing the insulin levels which helps to achieve the desired homeostatic state of the body. Providing patients with insulin helps them balance with the glucose thus effective in preventing adverse effects resulting from the imbalance problem. However, insulin injection should also be regulated to ensure there is a balance between the available insulin and the blood glucose levels. Additionally, the treatment is dependent on a personalized approach since it can have an impact on the balance of hormones in the body (Tijani, Fatoba & Petrik, 2013). Patients with diabetes are also provided with mediation that helps in stimulating thee pancreas more insulin rather than injecting them as well as reducing the release of glucagon. As earlier established the inability to control diabetic problem increases the risks of skin infections, pneumonia and urinary tract infection arising from longer stay in hospitals (Slama et al., 2016).

Conclusion

Endocrine system has been identified as key to health development based on the fact that it provides a balance on internal boy environment as well as promoting growth and development. However, the role is often affected due to the existence of different health problems such as diabetes which is a key problem affecting a large population in the country. Diabetes exists in two types such as type 1 and type 2 all related to the balance of blood glucose levels and the level of insulin produced in the body. The inability to address the diabetes problem increases the risks of other health problems such as chronic inflammation in the body or cardiovascular disease. To reduce the diabetes problem insulin injections are necessary to help in balancing the blood glucose level and the insulin levels thus maintaining homeostasis.

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