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SET721: Integrated Sustainable Infrastructure System Report- Sustainable Engineering Assignment Solution

May 31, 2017
Author : Kristy

Solution Code: 1JJEH

Question: Sustainable Engineering Report Assignment

This assignment is related to " Sustainable Engineering Report" and experts at My Assignment Services AU successfully delivered HD quality work within the given deadline.

Sustainable Engineering Report Assignment

Integrated Sustainable Infrastructure System Report

Project overview

The pressure on cities to meet the needs of their inhabitants is increasing. At the same time, population, economic and pressure from other needs is increasing the demand on available resources. There are a number of cities which are looking to the future and are accepting that they need to become sustainable cities. While many are looking towards a 50 year future, some cities are recognising that they will need to look beyond this to setting up a sustainable infrastructure and plan which will provide resilience in the future.

You are working with a group of consulting engineers to develop integrated, sustainable infrastructure to meet the needs of a city for the future, mainly for the next 50 years but also recognising ongoing future requirements. The key areas of concern are water, energy, transportation and communication.

Assignment 1

Sustainable Infrastructure Planning Report

Working in teams of four, you are tasked with developing a plan to deliver integrated, sustainable infrastructure for a city of approximately a million people. You and your team will need to understand the existing population structure, growth pattern, consumption, development and existing infrastructure as well as the critical needs for the future of the city.

For this assignment, select a city with a population of approximately a million inhabitants. Your team is to identify the factors which will influence the supply of resources for the future. For each of these factors, you need to consider, as an engineer, how the trends in these factors has led to the current city characteristics and how they may change into the future. The objective of this assessment is therefore to identify the basic and underlying factors which will influence and affect sustainability of the city for the future. The timeframe is defined as to 205o but, as a sustainability engineer, you will need to ensure that your thinking recognises the long term future of your city.

Clearly define your city, city limits and the scope of your assessment. You will need to recognise the boundaries but, equally, you need to recognise cross boundary requirements for good, resources and businesses and broader governance issues such as regional and national government as well as treaties and agreements. Finally you will need to develop a brief methodology for each of you to follow in developing integrated infrastructure systems which will provide the foundation for a sustainable city. Use properly labelled and referenced graphs, tables and figures to effectively present your data.

Submitted report

A template for this report will be made available; however, teams are welcome to change the template should they feel it does not meet the way they wish to present the information. The report must be fully referenced and written as a report.

Infrastructure System Report

Assignment 2 is to be submitted as an individual assignment but you are welcome to work with your team on the concept and development of the work. Working with your team, allocate an infrastructure system to each of your team members. Your objective is to assess the existing infrastructure you have been assigned and identify the resources which supply the city’s needs, limitations of those resources, alternatives which could be available and other

restrictions which may pose problems and risks to the sustainability of the infrastructure in the future.

In assessing the existing infrastructure, ensure you consider the history, age and development of the infrastructure and whether it is meeting the needs of its inhabitants including residential and business needs, For business, you must consider how infrastructure influences and supports supplying the residents with the goods they need as well as providing economic activities and prosperity for the city. You could also consider how the infrastructure is managed and governed.

Current upgrades to the infrastructure system should also be evaluated, particularly with respect to resources and to how such upgrades will influence the shape and dynamics of the city. In addition, any future plans for the city should be identified, preferably with some critical assessment regarding the long term sustainability of those plans.

Submitted report

A report format will be provided but you are welcome to change this to suit your purposes. In submitting this assignment, include assignment 1 as the introduction to your work. You are welcome to modify the introduction to improve it should you feel it necessary. You should include an objective and brief methodology which outlines the work you have done. Your section on the infrastructure system should be no more than 2000 words in length (excluding references). It should use the information in the introduction as a starting point, particularly in considering the changes for the future. The submitted report must be fully referenced.

Assignment 3

For this assignment, you will receive two assignments submitted as Assignment 2 by other students. Your task is to assess these assignments, using a standard feedback template as used in peer review of journal papers and provide additional feedback of up to 500 words to each assignment author. This feedback will be used by the authors to improve their final assignments so it should be clear and positive where possible.

Integrated Sustainability Report

The final assignment is to develop an integrated sustainability plan for your assigned infrastructure system.

  1. You will be provided with the feedback on your assignment 2 from two of your peers as well as the assigned unit marker.
  2. You will also be provided with copies of assignment 2 from each of your team members.

Your objective is to use the feedback and information on the other infrastructure systems to revise your infrastructure concept and develop a future plan for your infrastructure system which will:

  1. manage risks,
  2. provide resilience and
  3. meet sustainability requirements to 2050 and
  4. provide for the long term sustainability of your city.

You are welcome and encouraged to work with your team members on your assignment but the submission must be your own work.

Submitted report

A report format will be provided but you are welcome to change this to suit your purposes. In submitting this assignment, include assignment 1 and 2 as the introduction to your work. You are welcome to modify the introduction to improve it based on the feedback you have received. You should include an objective and brief methodology which outlines the work you have done. Your future plan should be no more than 2500 words in length (not including references) and should use Assignment 1 and Assignment 2 as the baseline. The submitted report must be fully referenced.

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Solution:

Sustainable Infrastructure in Niigata City

Introduction

Niigata is the largest agricultural city in Japan. The city is also referred to as “the water city” because it is based along Shinano River. The presence of fertile soil, enough water supply, and good weather conditions is the reason the agricultural potential of the city is very high. The important agriculture sector in the city is rice cultivation and horticulture. Niigata is a port city on Honshu Island. The biggest hydropower project in Japan is located in Niigata City. Niigata is just a two-hour drive from Tokyo. The population of the city is an estimated 804,315. The land area is approximately 725.1 square kilometers, and thus, the population density is 1,105.57

square kilometers. Geographical coordinates for the city is 37°54?58.3" N 139°2?11" E (Niigata official Tourist Information 2015).

growth-tree

The location of Niigata is the northeast coast side of Honshu Island. During the 16 th century, a port called Niigata was established near the Shinano River. During the 17 th century, a canal system was developed on the Niigata main island. Changes were experienced in the course of the River Shinano and River Agano during the 17 th century. The two rivers entered the sea at the same point. The improved canal transportation system in addition to the growing population resulted in the rapid development of the Niigata port town. Development of the canal was aimed at draining the Matsugasi area in 1730. However, in 1731 the canal was destroyed by floods and they were transformed into the major Agano River current. The volume of water entering the Niigata port town thus reduced. Because of insufficient water flow, the land within Niigata was reclaimed, and rich rice fields were developed. In 1886, the Bandai Bridge was constructed to link the east side of the Niigata city to the west part of the Nuttari town (City 2013).

Niigata has unique topographical features. The east part of the city comprises several mountains while the west and south areas comprise mainly the hills. Northern areas of the city are the Japan Sea that has coastal sand dunes. Lakes, swamps, and black marshes cover the land area especially on the downward surfaces of the Shinano River and Agano River. Infrastructure system of the city is diverse and covers areas such as transportation, energy, water and waste disposal infrastructures. These infrastructures are interdependent and thus, depend on the

effective performance of every infrastructure system. Developing underground water infrastructure; for instance, is made possible by electricity that runs the water pumping machines. Transportation system requires electricity infrastructure to light traffic lights and also run the electric train systems. Niigata is the city that provides the most effective transport infrastructure system along the Japan Seashore (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 2015). Travelling within the city is, therefore, very fast and enjoyable. The residents prefer the transportation services enhanced through the superior transportation system.

Current Infrastructure Integration

Niigata city presently has an advanced transportation system. The bullet trains and the road highways link all major parts of the city; for example, Kanto, Pacific Coast, Hokuriku, and Tohoku. Inner city infrastructure facilitates transportation services through enhancing access to the airport and also the seaport. Niigata city boasts of two important features. The first feature is the strong business feature while the second feature is the rural powerhouse. Niigata Airport provides internationally transport services by enabling residents of the city to travel to different countries for business, learning and tourist activities. The international airport also enhances the influx of foreigners in the city who engage in various economic, social and political activities. The airport also provides residential transport services within various urban areas across Japan. The city infrastructure systems are developed side by side with agricultural projects such as rice fields and also tree plantations. Currently, several agricultural projects are being initiated along the Shinano and Agano water channels, and this increases delivery of essential services like transport (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 2015). Traveling from Tokyo to Niigata is effectively realized using the bullet trains that have high speed and are comfortable. Travelling duration between the two cities is approximately 30 minutes, and the ticket charge for one person is presently 10,570 Yen. Non-natives can easily travel using the fleet system can

purchase the JR East pass that provides boundless free travel. Expressways are also used by people who want to travel to Niigata City. Sixteen expressways facilitate transportation between Tokyo to Niigata on a daily basis. Figure 2 shows how planes fly from Niigata to other urban areas across Japan. Transportation from the Niigata Airport to the Niigata Train Station is around 25 minutes. Three major road networks serve the city. These roads are; Nihonkai-Tohoku, Ban-etsu, and Hokuriku. Auto-ship and jetfoil transportation services make it easy to access the middle parts of Niigata and also the Sado Island, which is the second largest island in Japan (City 2013).

patterns

Japan developed roadways by open parkway partnerships. However, in Niigata City there is the East Japan Railway Company (JR East) that offers and manages the railway network services. Niigata has an additional six railway companies that compete with JR East to offer appropriate rail transport services. JR East was formed out of the national Japanese National Railways (JNR) because of the privatization process. Presently, JR East is completely privatized and owned by the public. Local and international airports within Niigata City are overseen by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLITT). The official government agency ensures that the airports adhere to best transport industry practices. MLIT has the additional responsibility of overseeing the seaports services such as ships, speedboats, and cruise transport. The ministry ensures enough security in all transport facilities and provides a transport schedule that shows the departure and arrival times of buses, ships, planes and trains (Japan National Tourism Organization 2015).

Transportation infrastructure requires a proper supply of fuel and electricity. Japan, being an advanced economy, has an excess supply of electricity. Thus, the transport network is mostly powered by electrical energy. Buses, bullet trains, ships, and plane, are mainly powered using electricity. Niigata City also depends on fuel and crude oil imports to provide the energy required for industrial processes like the production of transportation vessels. Most companies in Niigata possess a transportation system between the force plants and the urban interest regions (Japan National Tourism Organization 2015). Each power transmission line transfers high voltage electricity from the force plants to the electrical substations. High voltage power is between 66 and 500kV.Normally transmission lines are attached to towers. However, within the metropolitan areas the high voltage transmission lines are installed underground. Niigata city has several power generation plants that can provide electricity for its infrastructure projects. Additionally, there are several nuclear plants within the city (Alternative Energy News 2015). Transportation systems also use sustainable power sources such as solar panels. All the electrical companies in Niigata are funded through private means; however, their operations are continuously authorized by the MLIT. Tax revenues and tools are also utilized in financing the development of major infrastructure facilities like energy generation plants (Van 2014). Institutions of higher learning train human resources for the infrastructure projects in the city; for example, pilots, captains, and drivers.

Critical Analysis

Because of increasing population, the transportation infrastructure experiences a lot of strain. Many passengers travel and thus the demand for transportation services greatly improved. Electricity demand is also high in the city because of the rising demand for the energy source for both domestic and industry processes. Transport facilities should be improved to accommodate the interests of the expanding population. More highways, airports, seaports and rail networks should be established. Precaution measures should be taken to prevent destruction and loss of lives during natural calamities like earthquakes and floods. The calamities have occurred in the city in the recent past, and thus engineers should develop infrastructural facilities that have the capacity of withstanding the shocks of earthquakes or floods. Resources should be utilized in a sustainable manner so as to benefit both the present and future generations of people who will reside in the Niigata City. Japan greatly relies on foreign nations for oil supply (Lovins 2013). Niigata particularly has been a majorly importing port. In Japan, it gets the highest import volume of petroleum or oil products. Development of Kobe port is very beneficial because it will be an effective holder port that has enough capacity to accommodate all imports especially oil or petroleum.

Ocean water presence is high in Niigata. Architect should design infrastructure projects that are sustainable and ensure that the ocean resources are available for the future generations. Warn vitality areas are important for the Niigata and it uses 46.2% of the vitality. Tidal vitality is used in the process of power generation. High and low tides are transformed into electrical power using the extraordinary generators. Wind vitality is responsible for the generation of renewable power. Wind turbines transform the wind vitality into mechanical vitality and finally a clean energy source (International Energy Agency 2013). The renewable vitality wellsprings are necessary for providing sufficient power to manage advancements of the transportation, industrial and business activities.

Developing Future Infrastructure

Niigata city has various mineral resources of high quality. The main economic activity within the city if horticulture, despite the topography of the area being mountainous. A lot of technological and infrastructures improvements has made large scale agricultural activities to be very successful. The city is strategically located near the ocean and thus suitable for both import and export activities. Another important Japanese seaport is Kobe. Kobe and Niigata drastically developed during the nineteenth century because of high rates of rising international sea transport. Currently, Niigata illustrates a modest seaport, while Kobe is the largest Japanese port city. The distinction between the two ports is because of the diverse areas of the urban communities in the international guide. The rapid eventual result of the Kobe sea port that lies along the Pacific coast has low regulation on the development of the port. Niigata sea port also experienced minimal regulation. During the Second World War period, Niigata was minimally affected. However, Kobe was negatively affected by the events of the war. Because of the effects of the minimal war, many people moved to the Niigata city. The rising population further enhanced the expansion and development of the Niigata city. After the Second World War ended, the two port cities increased their zones continuously (City 2013).

Initially, Japan was very dependent on horticulture. Infrastructure development was not very sufficient because only 15% of the land area was suitable for development activities. The topography of the country was greatly covered by steep mountains and also water bodies. To develop in all aspects of the economy, Japan embraced innovation in infrastructure activities and also engaging in commercial activities in the area of innovation, synthetic enterprise and also agribusiness. Japan imports oil from the oil producing countries like the United Arab Emirates. Oil and petroleum comprise the two major products that Japan and its port cities like Niigata import. Development of the port city Niigata, therefore, greatly depends on high quality infrastructure that supports the tankers or shipping industry.

The underlying factors that influence future sustainable development of Niigata comprise; tidal, wind, biomass energies in addition to crop rotation. Niigata city has abundant access to the tidal energy. Tidal energy is a sustainable and environmentally clean approach of generating electricity that is required for providing energy for the economic sectors of the city and also the greater Japan. High and low wave energy is utilized in turning the turbines that generate electrical currents. The rise and fall of tides in addition to the stream waves generates vitality that is used on a continuous basis. Tidal energy represents one of the most effective approaches to generating electricity in a cost effective manner. Wind energy is an environmentally reliable approach of producing electrical energy. The kinetic energy generated by the wind power is important in generating electrical currents. Niigata city should adopt the wind energy source that is abundant instead of the coal and petroleum energy sources that are non-renewable and thus will not be available in sufficient quantities for the future generations. Biomass energy is easily renewable, and it is also cost effective. When biomass is burnt, the energy produced can be easily transformed into electrical currents in a renewable and environmentally sound manner (Martin 2012). Generation of biomass energy does not result in the production of harmful gasses that enhance global warming.

Crop rotation is an important agricultural technique that improves the soil fertility. High soil fertility is necessary for enhancing crop development and yields. Niigata city currently has abundant agricultural lands. Crop rotation is very sustainable unlike application of agricultural fertilizers which pollute the soil in the long term or when used in excess quantities. High yields because of the crop rotation have the beneficial aspect of improving the agricultural sector and also the dependent industries like transportation and food processing (Wallace, 2013).

Summary

Through utilizing effective, sustainable development approaches, Niigata City can properly address the present energy requirements and save the non-renewable energy sources for the benefit of the future Japanese generations. The sustainable development theories and plans should be sufficiently implemented by both governmental and non-governmental agencies. The world should strive to embrace the usage of natural resources that are completely renewable to avoid overexploitation of the non-renewable resources like petroleum. If the people residing in the Niigata city adopt the sustainable use of resources, then abundant energy sources will be available to improve economic activities for a period that exceeds 2050. Embracing sustainable development enables the city to use renewable wellspring vitality for the benefit of the future population of the city. Supportable improvements should thus be adopted to ensure good adoption of sustainable development practices. Sustainable development enables people to generate effectively electricity which will be used in improving infrastructures such as water, transportation and communication. Sustainable development also ensures that communication and transport infrastructure are easily accessible when natural disasters like floods occur.

The infrastructures should be diversified to ensure smooth rescue efforts in case of natural calamities. During earthquakes, light aircrafts can be used for rescue operations. In the case of flood, boats and ships will be the main transport vessels. Several communication infrastructures should be installed to ensure high access to the facilities. Mobile telecommunication, internet communication, cable communication and satellite communication facilities should be effectively installed to increase communication variety and ensure affordability. It is clear that Niigata city initially developed because of increased activities in the areas of agriculture, sea transportation, tourism, and fishing. These economic activities were fueled by the development of good communication, transportation and energy infrastructures. Presently, the city is universal and has a population of hundreds of thousands of people. The port city effectively integrates the fishing, agribusiness, tourism and infrastructure in a sustainable manner. Present development priorities entails the generation of electricity from renewable sources, like wing, solar, tides and biomass. Renewable energy sources do not generate harmful emissions that cause global warming, and thus it is sustainable and beneficial for the future generations. The seashore location of the city is economically strategic, because it ensures generation of renewable energy and good transportation services.

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