Computer Organisation & Architecture: Hexadecimal Codes- Report Writing Assignment

May 25, 2017
Author : Kristy

Solution Code: 1CE

Question: Computer Organisation & Architecture

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Question 1

  1. The operation code needs 8 bits.As will give only 128 instructions which is less than. Since we want to make room for all 210 instructions, we take the next upper, i.e. We can also find this by (optimized value).
  2. There are bits left for the address part of the instruction.
  3. The maximum allowable size for the memory is , i.e. a memory chip, because with 32 bits we can address at most words and each word is 40 bits long.
  4. The largest unsigned number that can be accommodated in one word memory is . Since each word has 40 bits, it can have values, i.e. from.

Question 2

  1. Below is the list of hexadecimal codes of respective instructions:
  2. MAS35-table

  3. Symbol Table:
  4. MAS35-table1

  5. AC = 0019 (Hex.) or 25 (decimal value), upon termination of program.

Question 3


Biometricsalludes to ‘metrics’ associated to ‘human characteristics’. Biometrics (or realistic) authenticationis applied in computer science as a form of identification andaccess control: (“Biometrics: Overview,” 2007). Biometric identifiers are unique, quantifiable aspects applied to describe and label individuals, attributed by various physiological characteristics such as the retina, iris recognition, hand geometry, DNA, fingerprint, face recognition, shape of the bodyand behavioral characteristics such as voice, gait, typing rhythm, pattern of behavior of a person (Sahidullah, 2015).

An average working professional has 19 passwords to recall on a regular basis, from banking, e-commerce, social networks, to emails, network and desktop logins. And with increasing number of online services, increases the complexity and security concerns related to them. People wish on a balance between simplicity and security, calling for application of Biometrics by providing easier, faster more robust authentication in a smoother way.

Very soon, our body attributes will be used to login to e-mail accounts. Intel is working on developing software sensors enabling there users to login to web servers, mails using biometric authentication serving two main purposes: customers don’t need to bother on remembering passwords and other login credentials for multiple sites, and that ‘biometric authentication’ is relatively secure and reliable. Apple already uses similar technology for its Apple Pay service, in order to authorize credit card payments, and Intel, by end of 2016, aims at bringing a similar abstract to personal computers.

Disruptive Sub-Dermal Fingerprint Authentication Technology, software testing and cloud computing, automatic face analysis, biometrics of gestures, of performance grading scheme, animal biometrics and its applications in pre-clinical research, harnessing 3D data in biometrics, real-time identity and e-agreements using biometric handwritten signatures, better image quality by user-centric fingerprinting Mobile biometric authentication…are primitive of the ongoing developmental scopes of biometrics: (Jain and Ross, 2011).

In a report, Gartner estimated that by year 2016, almost 30% of operative companies will employ biometric authentication features on mobile devices: (“Good Choices for Mobile Authentication,” 2013). Although biometrics may be susceptible to flawed peers and fixtures, possibly due to scanning and sensor errors, we have current and developing methods to minimize this, hence it is essential to merge biometric authentication with any other authentication technology. Such multi-factor authentication systems are always more secure comparatively. ATMs, for example requires a PIN (personal identification number) and a bank card with secondary authentication information

saved on a chip.

Biometric authentication can and probably will be effectively used in many areas, for example cars, access to buildings, DRM systems, PDAs and mobile phones, personal computers, ATMs and many more extents we can’t even think about. As stated by Transparency Market Research report, the global biometric sensors market was valued atUS$710.0 millionin 2014 and is predicted to outstretch atUS$1,625.8 millionby 2023, developing at an appreciable CAGR of 9.6% from year 2015 to 2023. In terms of volume, the biometric sensors market is expected to reach 1,799.6 million units by 2023, expanding at a CAGR 15.8% (2015-2023): (“Biometric Sensors Market,” 2016). With biometric devices becoming more affordable, error-free, and the additional security and reliability that they can guarantee, eventually, will overcome the limitations to its present concerns and problems on issues related to safety and privacy. Moreover, developments-in-line suggests that we might be in close proximity to ‘decade of the end of passwords’.

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