Haematology Assignment: Lack of Vitamin D in Haematological Disorders

November 02, 2018
Author : Sara Lanning

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Question: Haematology Assignment

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Haematology Assignment

Case Scenario/ Task

Vitamin D deficiency in Haematological disorders and the roles of vitamin D

supplement therapy in the treatment of these disorders

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Solution:Haematology Assignment

Introduction

An organic chemical compound that is needed by the body of an organism in limited amounts and it’s among the vital nutrients is called a vitamin. Some vitamins are impossible to be synthesized by the body of an organism therefore supplementation in both diets is required (Nowson et al. 2012, p. 687). To date, 13 vitamins have been recognised, and they have different roles they are believed to be playing in an organism. Their classification is based on their biological structure and the chemical activity involved within the tissues of an organism.

Functions of the Vitamins

Vitamins are known to be having different diverse functions in the body. For some like vitamin D are associated with hormone functions playing a role in the regulation of the mineral metabolisms, and also acting as regulators for both tissue and cell growth (Dror & Allen 2011, p. 477). They are also important during cell differentiation. On the other hand, a disorder means the disturbance that affects the function of different tissues in an organism. It can also be a disarrangement that will derail the body from the normal function. The disorders comprise several such as mental disorders, eating disorders and so on (Chapuy et al. 2015, p. 1642).

Haematological is a component of medicine that deals with the identification and treatment of disorders associated with the blood including the bone marrow. The haematology comprises the study of etiology. This majorly deals with diseases that affect blood production and its constituents. The constituents involve things such as blood cells, platelets, protein of the blood, plasma, red cells of blood, and white cells of blood (Flicker et al. 2015, p. 1881). Therefore, haematological disorders are diseases associated with blood.

Deficiency is a condition of not having enough of the required vitamin nutrients in the body. It can also be a state of lacking or taking in food that is not rich in the vitamins that the body requires for the normal functioning of the body. It can also be associated with a state of having a difficult situation in how the vitamins are formed in the tissues of the organism (Wacker & Holick 2013, p. 148).

Vitamin D Deficiency in Hematological Disorders

It is a steroid hormone with a number of classical role of regulating both the calcium metabolism and phosphate. The only method to prove you are a victim of vitamin D deficient is to undergo a blood test. However, there are signs and symptoms that one need to be aware of and in case they appear, it’s important to go for a blood test as soonest in order to be able to know one’s status (Orwoll et al. 2011, p. 604). Firstly, the presence of a darker skin, for many blacks they have high changes of being vitamin D deficient since the more the skin pigment, the more time you will spend in the sun in order to be able to make vitamin D. Secondly, when you have the feeling of being “blue” this is according to serotonin that is a hormone in the brain associated with mood elevation when the sun rises you experience an increase in the mood but when the sun falls it decreases (Petersen et al. 2013, p. 2379). When research was done, it showed that those patients with lower vitamin D were prone more to depression than the patients who received the doses. This is to say those with normal amount of Vitamin D required were less prone to depression. Thirdly, when you turn 50 or get older, the skin reduces it activities for making vitamin D from the solar and hence the kidney also becomes less efficient in converting the Vitamin D to be used by the body tissue. Many older people also don’t spend time outside the sun and hence their skin activity in the production of vitamin D has reduced, and they end up being victims of vitamin D deficient. Fourthly, the presence of high muscle mass, since vitamin D being fat soluble shows that those people with high muscle mass will need more vitamin D, since it will sink. Therefore, slim people need less vitamin D as compared to the fat people. Fifth, when the bones start to ache. Those patients who end up seeing their doctors for some aching and bone pains they end up being diagnosed with fibromyalgia or even they can be having chronic fatigue syndrome. Thus, this is due to the deficient of vitamin D which in turn causes a defect in the order which calcium is put into the collagen matrix found in the skeleton. The result is having a throbbing and some pain which aches. Sixth, head sweating; this is the most classical sign to know that you low amounts of vitamins D or you are lacking at all the presence of vitamin D. For many newborns, the mothers are asked if they have sweaty heads which as an indicator of deficient in the amount of vitamin D present. Thus, this shows the irritability of the neuron muscular which is an early sign of the vitamin D deficiency in the inborn. Lastly, having a gut trouble is another sign that in deed an individual is suffering from deficiency of vitamin D, knowing that it is soluble in fat therefore having problem with fat absorption in the gastro-intestinal duct shows the probability that you are not having enough vitamin D, this therefore, will comprise of several gut conditions such as chrohn’s, the inflammation bowel disease, and the celiac and non-celiac sensitivity. In many studies and research done out, it has been shown that deficiency in vitamin D is leading cause of many haematological diseases like: Anaemia’s which stands for the decrease in the red blood cells of the body or it can be due to less amount of haemoglobin found in the blood. It has been recognised as the main disorder accompanied with deficiency of vitamin D that is common. The next disorder is blood cancers and such diseases include the Lymphomas, Leukaemia’s and myelomas. They are types of cancer, that is malignant, and it originates from blood and affects bone marrow, and it can be found in the lymph nodes. We can also see the lack of vitamin D is associated with hypocalcaemia and in other situation; there is the development of kyphoscoliosis (Go et al. 2014, p. 1296). Thus, kyphoscoliosis is more common in children aged between 1 to 4 years. The epiphyseal cartilage is lowered at the lower ends of the radius, tibia, and ulna while the fibula becomes enlarged. For the pregnant women, the deficiency of vitamin D affects the foetus. This might lead to a condition known as maternal osteomalacia which might impact the neonate with metaphyseal lesions and hence rickets. The deficit of the vitamin D also can result into tetany condition. The tetany is as a result of hypocalcaemia. Thus, it is associated with affecting elderly individual with vitamin D deficiency. It may lead to parenthesis of the lips, fingers, and tongues. The affect are witnessed in the neonates being born having tetany if there existed maternal deficiency of vitamin D. Rickets is also a haematological disorder associated with lack of enough vitamin D in the body and this is seen in elderly infant affecting their sitting positions and sometimes there can be a delayed crawling in the infants (Besarab et al. 2011, p. 590). Thus, the ricket condition can also originate from the maternal deficiency of vitamin D which will cause osteomalacia which will results into ricket with a metaphyseal injury to living tissue in many neonates.

The importance of Vitamin D Supplement Therapy in intervention of Disorders

Vitamin D supplement is seen as the only way to cure the haematological disorders associated with lack of enough vitamin D in the body. There are several ways in which vitamin D supplement therapy will help in the treatment of the disorders. Several roles are played in the following way: The vitamin D supplement will help myeloid differentiation. Since many vitamin D receptors are found outside the intestines, kidneys, bones in an organism. These organs are the one recognised with the classical role of making vitamin D (Kulie et al. 2011, p. 706). The supplementation of the vitamin D will help the vitamin D receptors be expressed on various hematopoietic precursors, some monocytes, and theymocytes and for the activated vitamin lymphocytes. Since the supplement of vitamin D in the body, it will act as a stimulation which influences the hematopoietic development. Thus, this brings about the state of monocytic differentiation which is believed to be driven by vitamin D receptor activity. Therefore, this enhances the myeloid differentiation in organs, especially for the leukocytes. This helps in the treatment of different haematological disorders. Vitamin D supplement also acts as an immune modulator. The same vitamin D receptors play a big role during the modulation of immune on different types of modulated cells. This is experienced when there is activation of the vitamin D alpha and beta receptors by the supplement of the vitamin D which will produce an immune response known T-helper or can be also termed as a humoral immune response. This will help in the treatment of the haematological disorders like leukaemia and the blood cancers. Vitamin D therapy has been used several in the treatment of haematological disorders in different ways but majorly as shown above boosting the immune modulation, and also helping in cell differentiation forming red blood cells and so on, which in order will act as counteract for many diseases associated with blood.

Role of the Vitamin D Therapy in Non-Myeloid blood Cancers

There is not much that has been put across concerning what roles vitamin D plays in non-myeloid blood disorders. It has been shown the existence of activity that the analogue of vitamin D EB1089 in the cell line of myeloma H929. Apoptosis is believed to be caused by the agent that induces arrest of the cell cycle following the down control of dependent kinases (Ezzati et al. 2012, p. 1360). This activity is then augmented through a growth factor that is beta. Several clinical studies have indicated that Vitamin D supplement acts as an inhibitor to produce inhibiting effect over the lymphoid neoplastic basic structure of life.

Vitamin D supplement is linked with a role of modulating the immune response in an allogeneic transplant. The mechanism remains as the one outlined above. Though, there is the existence of CTLA-4, which is an inhibitor involved in the up-regulation of the immune responses against melanoma. This increases overall response against other malignancies linked with haematological disorders. The haematological disorders have been prone to immune surveillance, and the condition that results during the hematopoietic stem structure of life transplantation (Saag et al. 2014, p. 292).

Therefore, the supplementation of vitamin D in the diet will help to treat haematological disorders. Since vitamin D has been associated as a factor to cure some haematological disorders since it is also a factor for the some haematological disease outcome. However, the classical role played by vitamin D in the deposition of the calcium and the bone density remains critical (Manson et al. 2013, p. 523).

Conclusion

Ultimately, there are some benefits that are associated with utilization of the vitamin D supplementation in the intervention of haematological disorders. Since the condition is in the blood circulation system, evidence has shown that Vitamin D pathways will cause an effect on both how the cells are differentiated and their activation will be affected once they are differentiated. Therefore, this suggests that the supplementation of the vitamin D will alter some cases of haematological disorders. The same effect will be perceived during the immune response modulation which will end up affecting haematological diseases that are associated with a transplant of allogeneic stem and cells. On the other hand, the deficiency of vitamin D is a cause of many disorders some may include blood disorders while others are not associated with blood. Vitamin D, therefore, is a vital nutrient needed by the body. For the ageing adults, they need to supplement their level of vitamin D in the body since their skin conversion of the solar energy to vitamin D at older ages reduces. Vitamin D, therefore, is a nutrient linked with participating in major roles in the normal functioning of the body as it has been discussed above.

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