Project Quality Management Framework - Assessment Answers

November 30, 2017
Author : Charles Hill

Solution Code: 1HJC

Question: Project Quality Management Assignment

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Project Quality Management Assignment Writing


  • What is quality?


Quality can be defined as multi-dimensional set of attributes to an entity that can be managed and has the endurance to fulfill the stated and implied need of the customer to a level a satisfaction.

Quality can be divided into three interrelated dimensions:

  • Quality of design - It is the level to which a designer embraces requirements of the customer into the characteristics of the product or service.
  • Quality of conformance - It is the level to which the product accomplishes the quality of design or meets the designer’s specifications. It can be directly measurable but not directly related to the customer’s quality perception.
  • Quality performance - It is mainly associated with the reliability and shows weather the product or service is performing as per its required functions. Quality performance has a very strong effect on customer’s satisfaction and repeat business.

Today’s market is very competitive and the customers have a lot power. Customer wants the right quality at the first time and a failure in this regard can cause loss of a customers. It is more difficult and expensive to get a new customer than getting a new. Hence focus of the organization should not only be on consistently maintain good quality and customer’s satisfaction but it should also provide higher quality performance or exceed the customer satisfaction, which leads to customer’s delight. A delighted customer not only repeats business but also refers and helps in getting new customers through his experience and testimonials (O'Driscoll 2015).

Increase in quality has definite benefits such as reduction in time and cost and increase in moral of the employees. There are also possible benefits of increase in sales, customer loyalty, competiveness and profitability. It can be realized only by performing better than the competitors. But what is more important is the consequences and risk of failure in quality, which can, in turn, have negative consequences to stakeholders. Therefore, for survival of the organization, it is very important that it should always endeavor for continuous monitoring and improvement of the quality.

Specially, in the context of quality in project management, it does not necessarily mean quality of the final project and deliverables only, but also includes quality in project management like the quality of various processes, methods, standards and policies of the performing organization. This be can implemented through quality management plan, which provides continuous process improvement activities conducted throughout the project as required. Quality management plan provides specific techniques and policies to achieve quality deliverable. It is the responsibility of management that every project must have a quality management plan and project team should follow it and maintain data to demonstrate compliance with that plan, so that the project can meet the required standards and achieve its target.

Quality model

  • Project Quality Management Framework(PQMF)

I have attempted to develop a Project Quality Management Framework to improve the quality of product or services provided by a company. It is based on the focus on customers’ satisfaction and factual approach.

  • Customer Focus: The growth of an organization providing services or products is directly dependent on the satisfaction level of its targeted customers. Customers are the main source of strength for an organization. Therefore, endeavor should always be to maintain and enhance the quality of the products and services to meet the practical needs of the customers, which requires continuous monitoring of the market and understanding of the customers’ need.

  • Factual Approach: The decision on the quality of the products and service should be based on proper study and analysis of the data and information on the subject and not on hunches and theories. Relevant departments of the company should get together and hold focus group sessions to discuss the quality management aspects of the products and services.

  • Management

2.3.1 Resources management: An organization must make available sufficient resources and necessary infrastructure to produce products and services to meet the customers’ satisfaction. A good work environment including equipment, facilities, workspace and the working conditions is a prerequisite to achieve the quality production. Human resources involved in the project must be qualified and trained for the project and continuous job training should be provided followed by evaluation of training in order to keep the quality standards high.

2.3.2 Leadership: As the leadership of a company provides the direction and purpose to attain the intended objectives of the company, its role is extremely important in improving the quality of the production. The leadership is responsible to create an appropriate environment in which all the employees become partner in achieving organization objectives. The leadership inspires the employees to produce quality and quantity output. Effective leadership motivates employees at all levels of the organization to work together towards attaining the goals. Involvement of all available human resources and ideas helps increase company’s efforts in improving the quality.

2.3.3 Implementation (How to adopt PQMF?): A quality management framework can neither be created nor implemented by only a set of people at the high level of the organization or by a particular department. To implement an effective quality framework, it is very important that all the employees are involved in the process because it is easier to bring changes if everyone is a part of change and becomes stakeholder in it, than forcing a change from upside down. Similarly when the plans rolls out every employee is given a particular role from the top level organization to middle level management to operative employee level.

In most organizations, senior management comprising senior level managers and officers plays a key role in the deployment of the quality management plan as it is primarily their responsibility to implement the policies and directions of the company. It should also maintain and regularly monitor the quality management system to ensure that it meets intended objectives. The senior management should ensure that the necessary resources are made available at all times.

Role of Middle Management in Monitoring

The middle management operates in the area assigned to it within the organization. In quality management area, it is responsible to regularly monitor the quality of the product and identify quality related issues. The middle management also supervises and guides subordinate units in their functions and submit reports to senior management on activities under its domain. The middle management group consists of individual department directors, account managers and supervisors.

In the implementation of quality plan, the middle level managers play a leading role. Within the unit, the managers take wide range of initiatives to achieve desired goals and attain the quality standards. They identify quality related problems during the process and address them at their level. They also regularly work in coordination with suppliers and customers as demanded by the situation.

Role of operative employees

The operative employees mainly comprise of work force at the lower level and do not form the part of management in the organization. They participate in quality improvement efforts and are expected to provide leadership in those efforts as and when required. Since they are part of the process of implementation of quality plan, they also help in identifying any quality problems that need to be addressed

  • Process and System Approaches: In process approach, we consider that all the resources, inputs and output identified with organization activities are overseen as a process. There are various processes followed at different levels of an organization or a system, which can be considered as high level processes further divided into various sub-processes. Appropriate and proper understanding of these low level processes and bringing required changes in their functioning enables company to achieve overall improvement in the system’s quality objectives.

2.4.1 Company and Supplier Relationship: An organization has both internal and external suppliers and customers. The relationships between the suppliers and the customers should be mutually beneficial for all the parties involved. A good supply chain management complements the good quality management system by reducing the waste and delivery schedule which can only be achieved by building trust between customer and supplier.

2.5 Measurement, Analysis and Continuous Improvement: Continuous improvement is an integral part of the quality framework and should be incorporated in the charter of the organization. It includes monitoring of everything a company does as per the company’s policies and KPIs. As the needs of the customers keep on changing with time and at the same time there are many competitors in the market who also focus on producing better quality products by introducing small, but significant, changes in inspection, measurement, analysis and testing processes on a regular basis for success of the organization in long term. Internal audits and regular feedback from customers on performance also helps monitor quality framework.

  • Corrective Action and Prevention and Control: When a product is not performing according to the specifications, it must be clearly identified and not allowed to reach customers. Corrective action should be taken to identify the problem in the product and defects should be removed in the quality. It must be ensured that problem does not re-occur in future.


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Now days, companies are focusing on producing their own new products. To ensure that the product meets all the quality standards, they also need to buy the required components of high quality. Many problems can be prevented by checking the quality of the product at the very first stage rather than wasting time later in inspecting the final product and repair the defects and errors.

Here I will be discussing the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) to ensure quality of any new product so that it meets the customer’s expectations. It helps the supplier to understand the expectations from the component, reduce the quality defects during production using preventive measures and taking the correct action in the first stage itself. This way the managers can reduce and regulate the uncertain activities before the next phase of implementation. Controlling the process can successfully lead to high quality work. Carefully evaluating the process, operations involved in manufacturing and marketing can be better understood. It can also unveil the connected matters and dependencies if any.

Quality management framework: Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)

PPAP defines general requirements for production part approval, including bulk materials and production processes. Its main purpose is to see that the organization clearly understands the customer engineering design record, specification requirements, whether the manufacturing process has the potential to produce consistent products, and production cost is also optimized.

The main components which constitute PPAP are:

1) Records of the design: Drawing can be available along with the purchase order or can be the responsibility of the supplier. In the latter case the drawing has to be on the supplier's release system.

2) Authorized Engineering Change Documents: All the changes need to be documented in detail.

3) Approval of engineers: This involves the approval of production parts by the engineers at the customer’s end.

4) Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: A copy of the DFMEA needs to be reviewed and signed-off by both the supplier and the customer. If design is the responsibility of the customer, this document need not be shared with the supplier. This contains the list of all important or high impact product characteristics and should be shared with the supplier, so they can be addressed on the PFMEA and Control Plan.

5) Process Flow Diagram: It describes the flow of the process indicating all the manufacturing steps including incoming components.

6) Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA): The PFMEA indicates and rank the potential risks involved in the manufacturing process. This can help in focusing on the corrective actions wherever necessary. Each of accounted factors is scored and ranked and assigned a Risk Priority Number (RPN).

7) Control Plan: It documents how the "potential risks" during the incoming quality, assembly process or inspections of finished products were checked. Control plan is used and maintained throughout the product life cycle.

8) Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA): Statistical methods are used to evaluate the performance at each stage of the process. Deviation from the expected values is controlled by adjusting the protocol.

9) Dimensional Results: This list displays all the characteristics, specifications, measurement results and the dimension assessment of the product. In general at least 6 pieces per product/process need to be evaluated.

10) Records of Material / Performance Tests: This document summarizes the results of all the tests performed on to the product during the manufacturing process to ensure its quality and performance. In addition, this section lists all material certifications (steel, plastics, plating, etc.), as specified on the printed label of the product.

11) Initial Process Studies: This section shows all Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts affecting the most critical characteristics of the product.

12) Qualified Laboratory Documentation: All laboratory certificates involved in the process need to be documented properly.

13) Appearance Approval Report: It involves testing of the characteristics of the product which influence its physical appearance.

14) Sample Production Parts: Picture of a sample from the production lot is recorded here.

15) Master Sample: A sample signed off by customer and supplier which is used to train the operators.

16) Checking Aids: If special tools were used to check the components of the new product their picture must be recorded along with the results obtained. It also involves the dimension check.

17) Customer-Specific Requirements: Each customer may have specific requirements to be included on the PPAP package.

18) Part Submission Warrant (PSW): This part of PPAP package in brief describes the need for the product and the documents submitted to the customer. The opinion and feedback from the customer is also recorded.

PPAP is enforcesd when a prototype of the product is available. Thus the purpose of PPAP is to continuously monitor the level of quality, actions and processes and to ensure the capability of new products and processes.

Graphical representation of the quality management framework

Graphical representation of the quality management framework

Deployment of PPAP in automotive industry

Here I have tried to deploy this quality management framework in an automotive industry. It describes the way in which PPAP cam be used to assure the quality of the component to be manufactured.

Design Records

When specific design format like CAD/CAM or. maths data is provided by the supplier, a hard copy for the same in the form of a picture, GD&T sheets or specification pages needs to be provided and submitted.

Authorized Engineering Change Documents

The customer needs to be informed via written documentation if supplier is planning to make some changes prior to their implementation. The part in concern needs to be mentioned clearly along with detailed description of the reason and the changes made. The time required for the same is also need to be reported. Sufficient time must be given for customer review. Failing to do this will lead to disciplinary actions.

Approval of engineers

Supplier needs to take approval from the customer for all parts, tooling, product or processes involved in the manufacturing.

Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

Any tool used for designing or checking a component, system or process to check the design related issues needs to be retained by the supplier. But should be considered, addressed and made available for review to the customer whenever demanded.

Process Flow Diagram

In this supplier has to thoroughly gauge and examine the manufacturing and assembly process, from scratch to the end. They need to list the all potential reasons for any variation observed. They need to provide a process flow showing sequential arrangement of processes and components involved.

Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA)

Any failure during the process cannot be attributed to mishandling of the operator. Any issue, either from the customers’ end or the manufacturers’ end needs to be documented with proper solution to create a living document that should be used and can be updated for the life of the product.

Control Plan

It includes a written description of all the special characteristics of the product. A systematic approach needs to be used to ensure that all the consumer’s expectations are being met. Any changes made to the product control plan need written approval and resubmission of the PPAP.

Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA)

This ensures the quality of the parts by using measurement systems. MSA must be submitted with all initial process studies. Gage R&R, Bias, Linearity, & Stability have to be submitted whenever needed. All these criteria are received as a part of the supplier evaluation process. Corrective actions are necessary for all rejected items.

Dimensional Results

Product must be able to pass the dimension test in case cavities, moulds, line, etc. are a part of it. All records should be submitted on the dimensional results form.

Records of Material / Performance Tests

Performance tests should be less than one year old at the time of the initial submission of PSW. The supplier needs to maintain and update all testing data for each lot of material. When PPAP is requested for an engineering change, the supplier shall submit the testing data that corresponds to the material used to for the change.

Initial Process Studies

Here the samples are tested from the production lot to check if they meet all the customer requirements. It is done on randomly selected pieces.

Qualified Laboratory Documentation

The purpose of this record is to confirm that the supplier has used accredited material only. This Record must be submitted with all testing data. ISO certification needs to be shown wherever applicable.

Appearance Approval Report

Aesthetic criteria are evaluated in Visual Quality Audit (VQA) during this section.

Sample Production Parts

Sample parts are now submitted for appearance and functional evaluation.

Master Sample

A prepared sample which meets all the customer requirements is called a master sample and needs to be retained for approval from the customer.

Checking Aids

The supplier has to submit any part-specific assembly or component checking aid along with the PPAP if the customer demands for it. The supplier also has to provide the information related to preventive maintenance of any checking aids for the life of the part.

Customer-Specific Requirements

The supplier should have proper records of specific requirements agreed upon with the customer.

Part Submission Warrant (PSW)

Customer finally states the reason for the submission of the final product and the supplier states that he has taken care of all the requirements specified by the customer. Information related to the final product like its weight, material used, strength, heat tolerance etc. is also documented. All checking aids which need to be supplied along with the product for its everyday processing are also identified on the PSW.

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